The railway sector is undergoing a major transformation of its operations, systems and infrastructure due to the digitisation of OT and IT systems and infrastructure, the automation of railway processes, the issues of mass transit and the increasing numbers of interconnections with external and multimodal systems.


This sector is also evolving as it gradually opens up to competition. This leads to the reallocation of responsibilities and the separation of railway systems and infrastructure, which also affect IT systems.

The main players within this sector are the railway undertakings (RU), in charge of providing services for the transport of goods and/or passengers by rail; and the infrastructure managers (IM), in charge of establishing, managing and maintaining railway infrastructure and fixed installation, including traffic management, control-command and signalling, but also station operation and train power supply. Both are in the scope of the NIS Directive, and their identification as operator of essential service (OES) respects the transposition of laws to the majority of member states.

The Role of ENISA

The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity support in cybersecurity capabilities in the railway sector by:

  • Issuing guidance and recommendation papers togetherrailway landing page with the community
  • Organising physical and virtual events
  • Participating in discussions with the Railway community on regulatory matters
  • Validating activities through dedicated subgroup in TRANSSEC
  • Contributing to standardisation activities

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